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Honey Oranges(Fresh Orange for sale)

Author :   Source :   Hits : 2817   Addtime : 2010-08-21 13:04:54
3.5 Manuring

The Department recommended the following manuring programmes:-

Year
Time of application
Type of fertiliser

Amount per plant/year (kg)

Rate per plant / Application (kg)
0
At planting
Rock phosphate
0.20
0.20
Dolomite
0.10
0.10
Chicken dung
5.00
5.00
1
Every 3 months
15:15:15
0.50
0.13
2
Every 3 months
15:15:15
1.50
0.38
3
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
2.50
0.63
4
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
4.00
1.33
5
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
5.00
1.67
6 & above
Every 4 months
12:12:17:2 + TE
6.00
2.00

Source : Crop Production Manual Vol. 1, 1995, DOA Sarawak

In addition, organic manure at 5 - 10 kg/tree/year and dolomite at 200 g/tree/year is recommended.


4. PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT


4.1 Pests .

Some of the common insect pests of honey orange are as follows:-

Insect
Symptom
Control
Fruit borer
Larvae eat and thrive inside the fruit. Infected fruit will have a hole with some frass.
If possible wrap all fruits. Remove and bury all infected fruits.
Fruit fly
Larvae feed on the content of the fruit causing soft brown patches on skin. Fruits become rotten and fall off.
Destroy infested fruits. Bag the fruit. Bait sprays (Promar or chemical attractants). Spray with pyrethroid.
Leaf miner
Larvae mine beneath the epidermis and eat the tissue. Cause distortion and rolling of the leaves. Spray with dimethoate or malathion.
Scale insect
Insects attack most aerial parts causing leaves to drop, shoots to wither and fruits to become mottled and stop growing.
Remove and burn infested parts. Spray with either white oil, malathion or dimethoate.
Black citrus aphid
Feed on young shoots and leaves, resulting in distorted shoots, curly and cupped leaves.
Spray with either pyrethroid or dimethoate.
Citrus psyllid
Adults and nymphs suck sap from young shoots and leaves, introducing greening disease.
Regular spraying with pyrethroid , dimethoate or malathion.


4.2 Disease

Some of the common disease of honey orange are as follows:-

Disease
Symptoms
Control
Sooty mould
Black mycelia on leaf surface, stems and fruits after infestation of insect like aphids and scale insects.
Control of sucking insects reduces the problem. Spray with either with oil, pyrethroid or dimethoate.
Root and collar rot
Attack root and stem coller. Infected root will rot beginning with area above the ground and spread to the coller. Leaves turn yellow, drop and dieback.
Use disease resistant rootstock. Proper pruning and drainage. Use metalaxyl, cupric hydroxide and captan.
Greening disease
Sectorial and interveinal chlorosis. Leaves are stunted and curled inwards with leathery fell. Produce lopsided fruits with uneven ripening and red nose symptoms ( a band of green with orange or red)
Use disease free planting materials. Prune infected branches. Remove and burn all infected trees. Spray vector with malathion or dimethoate.
Scab
Attack leaves, branches and fruits. Form acorky tissue in infected area and blemishes on fruits.
Proper sanitation. Spray with copper oxychloride or captan.
Pink disease
Infects young branch and shoots; greencoloration of stem turns brown cover by pink mat of fingi, petioles of foliage along the branch also turn brown. The bark of older parts crack and become scaly; leaves drop, eventually branch dies.
Prune off the infected branch; spray with tridemorph (calaxin) at two-week intervals.


5. MATURITY AND HARVEST

5.1 Maturity

Vegetatively production (4 years after planting)

5.2 Yields

On the first year of production (4 years after planting) the tree produces about 7,000 kg/ha/yr of fruits and normally reached maximum production of about 22,000 kg/ha/yr on the sixth year of planting. Then, the yield declined due to greening disease problem.

Table 1 : Honey orange production by smallholders

Plot
Fresh fruit yield (kg/ha/yr)
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Serian
6,875
14,961
18,613
20,165
19,657
Asajaya
7,153
15,962
21,045
20,154
18,965
Sadong Jaya
7,064
16,821
22,516
19,652
18,251
Purata
7,030.67
15,914.67
20,734.67
19,990.33
18,957.66

 

 

 

 

 

5.3 Seasonality

Honey orange is a non-seasonal fruit. It produces fruits throughout the year with two peak seasons, that is October - November and March - April period.

5.4 Harvesting Indices

The fruits can be harvested between 8-9 1/2 months after flower anthesis. In other words, the fruits are ready for harvest when they show a tinge of yellow and the skin becomes slightly shiny. Harvesting maybe staggered over one to two months.

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